At least nine people in the Yamal region of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district (YNAD) in northern Russia are hospitalized due to anthrax, according to a Siberian Times report. Four children are reported as being treated in intensive care.
This is the first anthrax outbreak recorded in more than seven decades.
1200 reindeer died suddenly in the areas around Tarko-Sale but the authorities are unclear so far how many perished from anthrax.
Health authorities are deeply concerned about nomadic herders and their families in the Tarko-Sale camp, some 540 kilometres (350 miles) south-east of regional capital Salekhard. A mass evacuation is underway.
Vaccination of deer not affected has begun and is expected to be completed in three days.
Anthrax is a pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Some of the more common herbivores are cattle, sheep, goats, horses, camels and deer.
It infects humans primarily through occupational or incidental exposure with infected animals of their skins. Recently someone was infected by handling imported animal skins to be used for a drum set. The animal skin was contaminated with anthrax spores.
In recent decades, human anthrax has declined due to anthrax vaccines for people who work in high risk industries, decreased importation of potentially contaminated animal products and better animal husbandry practices.
Anthrax is caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. This spore forming bacteria can survive in the environment for years because of its ability to resist heat, cold, drying, etc. this is usually the infectious stage of anthrax.
When conditions become favorable, the spores germinate into colonies of bacteria. An example would be a grazing cow ingests spores that in the cow, germinate, grow spread and eventually kill the animal.
The bacteria will form spores in the carcass and then return to the soil to infect other animals. The vegetative form is rarely implicated in transmission.
The organism also produces some dangerous toxins and proteins.
There are no reports of person-to-person transmission of anthrax. People get anthrax by handling contaminated animal or animal products, consuming undercooked meat of infected animals and more recently, intentional release of spores.
There are three types of anthrax with differing degrees of seriousness:
- Cutaneous anthrax: this occurs when the spore (or possibly the bacterium) enters a cut or abrasion on the skin. It starts out as a raised bump that looks like an insect bite. It then develops into a blackened lesion called an eschar that may form a scab. Lymph glands in the area may swell plus edema may be present. This form of anthrax responds well to antibiotics. If untreated, deaths can occur if the infection goes systemic. 95 percent of cases of anthrax are cutaneous.
- Gastrointestinal anthrax: this follows the ingestion of contaminated meats. It is characterized by stomach pain, severe bloody diarrhea, bloody vomit and an inflammation of the intestinal tract. Up to half of those infected will perish from this form of disease. This is a very rare type of anthrax.
- Inhalation anthrax: also known as “woolsorter’s disease”, happens due to inhaling the spores. After incubating for less than a week; fever, aches, vomiting are early symptoms. After the initial symptoms, a short period of improvement (less than a day) may occur. It then progresses to severe respiratory distress. Shock and death soon follow. Later stages of this infection have nearly a 100 percent chance of death even with antibiotics.