The World Health Organization (WHO) reported today on the ongoing measles outbreak in Brazil. From 1 January through 23 May 2018, there were 995 reported cases (Amazonas State, n=611, and Roraima State n=384).
Of these cases, 114 have been laboratory confirmed (30 in Amazonas and 84 in Roraima), including two deaths. Eighty three cases were discarded and 798 remain under investigation.
In Amazonas State, 611 suspected cases were reported from 1 January through 23 May 2018, of which 30 were confirmed, 63 discarded and 518 are under investigation. In Roraima State, 384 suspected cases were reported, of which 84 were confirmed, 20 discarded and 280 are under investigation. Of the 84 confirmed cases, 58 are among Venezuelans (69%), 24 Brazilians (28,6%), one from Guiana (1,2%) and 1 Argentinian (1,2%). Of all confirmed cases, 34 are indigenous. Two measles deaths were among Venezuelans from Boa Vista municipality.
The rash onset dates of the confirmed cases in both States were from 4 February through 2 April, 2018. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz/RJ) conducted an analysis, where they identified the genotype as D8 for all laboratory confirmed cases, which is identical to the 2017 Venezuela outbreak.
Roraima and Amazonas states have started a vaccination campaign that targets six month old infants through 49-year-old age groups.
Measles is a highly contagious viral disease which affects susceptible individuals of all ages and remains a cause of death among young children globally. Measles virus is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat of infected persons. Initial symptoms, which usually appear 10–12 days after infection, include high fever, usually accompanied by one of several of the following: runny nose, bloodshot eyes, cough and tiny white spots on the inside of the mouth. Several days later, a rash develops, starting on the face and upper neck and gradually spreading downwards.
A patient is infectious four days before the start of the rash to four days after the appearance of the rash. There is no specific antiviral treatment for measles, and most people recover within two to three weeks.
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