By NewsDesk @bactiman63
The number of dengue fever cases in the Western Hemisphere continues to rise as UN health officials put the total at nearly 1.5 million year-to-date.
According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), 1,493,829 cases have been reported in the region of the Americas.
This number is actually more than the annual totals for 2017 and 2018 combined (1,141,994).
Eighty-six percent of the cases have been reported in Brazil (1,292,111, or about 6x the total cases this time last year), followed by Colombia (61,609), Nicaragua (46,287) and Mexico (29,910).
602 fatalities related to dengue have been recorded so far.
The four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1, DENV2, DENV3 and DENV4) are currently circulating simultaneously in the Americas region, which increases the risk of severe cases.
Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. There are four closely related but antigenically different serotypes of the virus that can cause dengue (DEN1, DEN 2, DEN 3, DEN 4).
Dengue Fever (DF) – marked by an onset of sudden high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and pain in muscles and joints. Some may also have a rash and varying degree of bleeding from various parts of the body (including nose, mouth and gums or skin bruising).Dengue has a wide spectrum of infection outcome (asymptomatic to symptomatic). Symptomatic illness can vary from dengue fever (DF) to the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) – is a more severe form, seen only in a small proportion of those infected. DHF is a stereotypic illness characterized by 3 phases; febrile phase with high continuous fever usually lasting for less than 7 days; critical phase (plasma leaking) lasting 1-2 days usually apparent when fever comes down, leading to shock if not detected and treated early; convalescence phase lasting 2-5 days with improvement of appetite, bradycardia (slow heart rate), convalescent rash (white patches in red background), often accompanied by generalized itching (more intense in palms and soles), and diuresis (increase urine output).
Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) — Shock syndrome is a dangerous complication of dengue infection and is associated with high mortality. Severe dengue occurs as a result of secondary infection with a different virus serotype. Increased vascular permeability, together with myocardial dysfunction and dehydration, contribute to the development of shock, with resultant multiorgan failure.
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