Officials with the Zamboanga City Health Office announced over the weekend that they will be conducting a diphtheria vaccination after reports of the death of a 2-year-old.

Photo credit: CDC/ Amanda Mills
Photo credit: CDC/ Amanda Mills

According to a GMA News report, Dr. Rodel Agbulos, city health officer, has confirmed that a two-year-old patient has died of diphtheria. The child’s two siblings have also been found positive with the bacterial disease.

Contact tracing has begun and at least 60 children from three barangays in the city are under observation.

Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Risk factors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.

Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. This infection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever very similar to many common diseases like strep throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by observing a characteristic thick grayish patch (membrane) found in the throat. In more severe cases, neck swelling and airway obstruction may be observed. In the tropics, cutaneous and wound diphtheria is much more common and can be a source of transmission.

The real serious danger is when the toxin that is produced by the bacterium gets into the bloodstream and spreads to organs like the heart and nervous system. Myocarditis, congestive heart failure and neurological illnesses of paralysis that mimic Guillain-Barre syndrome are most severe. Even with treatment, fatalities are still seen in up to 10% of cases.

Diphtheria can be treated and cured successfully with antitoxin and antibiotics if started early enough. The prevention of diphtheria is through vaccination.