The floods that hit Malaysia in late December are considered epic- forcing 200,000 to evacuate in several states.

map of Malaysia

Northern and Eastern states of Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Perak and Perlis in Malay Peninsula were hit by flash floods including some areas in Sabah. Approximate two dozens deaths were reported.

Now after the floods subside come the increase in infectious diseases–a similar story after each major flood.

According to a New Strait Times report:

Health Minister Datuk Seri S Subramaniam said 753 suspected leptospirosis infections with 126 confirmed cases were recorded since 1 Jan 2015 in the flood-hit states.

He said there are also increases in other diseases such as acute gastroenteritis, other diarrheal diseases and upper respiratory tract infections among flood victims.

Subramaniam also said that there are 20 confirmed melioidosis cases recorded at the flood affected places.

Health officials are stepping up public education and public hygiene campaigns advising people about boiling water, wearing boots in flood waters, etc.

For your information: Massey University researchers produce Leptospirosis video series

Melioidosis (also known as Whitmore disease and Nightcliff gardener’s disease) is caused by the bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease though somewhat rare has been seen in areas of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, particularly after heavy rains. In Thailand it is considered a disease of rice farmers.

The organism is saprophytically found in soil and water. People usually get infected by contact with contaminated soil or water through skin wounds, inhalation or rarely through ingestion of contaminated water.

Person to person transmission can occur through contact with blood and body fluids of an infected person.

Depending on how heavy the infection incubation can range from hours to weeks. Infection may show no symptoms but it can quickly progress to disseminated disease involving skin and a variety of organs.

Pneumonia from B. pseudomallei can be seen either in acute or chronic disease. Chronic pulmonary meloidosis may present itself years after exposure and can mimic tuberculosis.

Fatality rates of melioidosis can reach up to 75 percent even with appropriate antibiotic treatment. Fatalities are particularly greater in those with underlying conditions like diabetes mellitus or renal disease.

People at higher risk of contracting this disease are those with jobs or hobbies that increase their exposure to contaminated soil and water like military, construction, farmers, eco-tourists and other adventure travelers.

Prevention is based on avoiding exposure of cuts and other trauma with soil and water in endemic areas. This is especially important if the person has an underlying disease. The use of boots and gloves are recommended for people whose work involves contact with soil and water, like farmers.