The Maryland Department of Health has presumptively identified the influenza virus strain H3N2v (variant flu) in five Maryland residents who had close contact with pigs at the Anne Arundel County Fair and The Great Frederick Fair. None of the five infected people has developed serious illness or has been hospitalized. The investigation into variant flu is ongoing.
This brings the total of presumptive positive and confirmed cases to 20.
In addition, The Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH) announced today the state’s first laboratory-confirmed case of a variant influenza virus (H3N2v) in a female Sussex County resident under age 18, who had close contact with pigs at a county fair in Maryland. The case is mild and the individual is recovering.
Test results from sick pigs at the Great Frederick Fair have been confirmed as the subtype H3N2, according to the Maryland Department of Agriculture. Ninety-five pigs remain in isolation at the fairgrounds. Additionally, three farms in Frederick County have been placed on a hold order in relation to this outbreak. The effected farms had pigs at the Great Frederick Fair that were discharged prior to the detection of the virus. Nasal swabs from those pigs have been sent out for further testing.
Officials have lifted the hold order at Charles County Fair. The swine barn at the fairgrounds will be completely broken down to allow thorough cleaning and disinfection. The Anne Arundel County fair ran concurrently, and there were no reports of pigs displaying illness at those fairgrounds.
The Calvert County Fair is the last of the Maryland county fairs scheduled for the season. Swine exhibits at this event were cancelled last week by order of the Secretary of Agriculture out of an abundance of caution.
Health officials recommend that people with influenza-like illness contact their healthcare provider and inform them if they have had pig contact within the past seven days. Providers are advised to contact their local health departments if they suspect variant flu in their patients to coordinate appropriate testing with their local health department.
Influenza is an infection caused by an influenza virus that can affect people and other animals, including pigs and birds. Symptoms for the H3N2v influenza strain are the same as for those of seasonal flu, and they include fever and respiratory symptoms, such as sore throat and cough. Historically, there is limited human-to-human transmission from this strain of variant flu. The treatment recommendations for this strain of influenza are the same as for seasonal flu.
Certain people are at higher risk for complications of influenza, including children under 5, the elderly, pregnant women and those with chronic heart, lung, liver, kidney and neurologic conditions or immunosuppression. The spread of influenza, including the possible spread of H3N2v, between humans can be prevented by:
- Avoiding close contact with sick people;
- Limiting contact with others as much as possible if you are sick to keep from infecting them and staying home from work or school if you are sick until you are fever free for 24 hours without fever reducing medicines;
Covering your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze and dispose of the tissue immediately after use;
- Washing your hands often with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub, if soap and water are not available;
- Avoiding touching your eyes, nose and mouth;
- Cleaning and disinfecting surfaces and objects that might be contaminated with such germs as the flu; and
Getting the seasonal influenza vaccine when it becomes available. Although it is not effective against H3N2v, it is protective against other common strains of influenza.
The spread of influenza between pigs and humans can be prevented by:
- Washing your hands frequently with soap and running water before and after exposure to pigs;
- Never eating, drinking or putting things in your mouth while occupying areas where pigs are present;
- Considering avoiding exposure to pigs and swine barns this year, especially if sick pigs have been identified and if you are high risk of complications from influenza;
- Watching your pig for signs of illness and calling a veterinarian if you suspect it might be sick;
- Avoiding close contact with pigs that look or act ill; and
- Avoiding contact with pigs if you are experiencing flu-like symptoms.
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