Alberta Health Services Public Health has identified a confirmed case of diphtheria in Medicine Hat. The risk to the general public is low. Public Health is contacting and managing those who had significant contact with the case.

Public domain image/UK Gov't
Public domain image/UK Gov’t

According to local media, the case is a student at Elm Street School who contracted the disease earlier this month. A letter was sent home to parents last week, informing them about the illness.

Diphtheria: A short history, the disease, treatment and the success of the vaccines

Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Risk factors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.

Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. This infection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever very similar to many common diseases like strep throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by observing a characteristic thick grayish patch (membrane) found in the throat. In more severe cases, neck swelling and airway obstruction may be observed. In the tropics, cutaneous and wound diphtheria is much more common and can be a source of transmission.

The real serious danger is when the toxin that is produced by the bacterium gets into the bloodstream and spreads to organs like the heart and nervous system. Myocarditis, congestive heart failure and neurological illnesses of paralysis that mimic Guillain-Barre syndrome are most severe. Even with treatment, fatalities are still seen in up to 10% of cases.

Diphtheria can be treated and cured successfully with antitoxin and antibiotics if started early enough. The prevention of diphtheria is through vaccination.

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The illness is rare in Alberta, with only two cases reported throughout the province in 2017.

There were no cases from 2008-2016 in Alberta, according to Alberta Health Services.