A student at Evansdale Elementary School in north Edmonton has been diagnosed with the serious vaccine-preventable disease, diphtheria, exposing a number of classmates at the same time, according to a CBC report Monday.

This child with diphtheria presented with a characteristic swollen neck, sometimes referred to as “bull neck”. Image/CDC
This child with diphtheria presented with a characteristic swollen neck, sometimes referred to as “bull neck”. Image/CDC

Alberta Health Services (AHS) confirmed the case on Friday and is contacting individuals who may have had close contact with the student.

“At this time, no other cases have been identified and the risk to the public remains extremely low,” spokesperson Kerry Williamson wrote in an email to CBC News Monday.

“AHS encourages parents and guardians to ensure they and their children are up to date on their immunizations.”

See more details at CBC

Diphtheria: A short history, the disease, treatment and the success of the vaccines

Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Risk factors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.

Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. This infection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever very similar to many common diseases like strep throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by observing a characteristic thick grayish patch (membrane) found in the throat. In more severe cases, neck swelling and airway obstruction may be observed. In the tropics, cutaneous and wound diphtheria is much more common and can be a source of transmission.

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The real serious danger is when the toxin that is produced by the bacterium gets into the bloodstream and spreads to organs like the heart and nervous system. Myocarditis, congestive heart failure and neurological illnesses of paralysis that mimic Guillain-Barre syndrome are most severe. Even with treatment, fatalities are still seen in up to 10% of cases.

Diphtheria can be treated and cured successfully with antitoxin and antibiotics if started early enough. The prevention of diphtheria is through vaccination.