Of the three main diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti, chikungunya is the only one that shows an increase in cases this year in Brazil compared to 2019, the year of the last survey before the pandemic.
This year through December 17, there were 172,082 probable cases of chikungunya (incidence rate of 80.7 cases per 100 thousand inhabitants) in Brazil. Compared to the year of 2019, there was an increase of 31.9% of cases registered for the same analyzed period.
So far, 93 chikungunya deaths have been confirmed in Brazil, with Ceará concentrating more than 40% of them.
For the year 2022, the Northeast Region presented the higher incidence (257.1 cases/100,000 inhab.), followed by Midwest (36.1 cases/100,000 inhab.) and North Regions (26.4 cases/100,000 inhab.).
The municipality with the most records of probable cases of chikungunya is Fortaleza, capital of Ceará, with 760 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. That number is nearly ten times the national average. Between January of this year and December 17, there was a one-third increase in cases of the disease compared to 2019. The year is used as a reference because of social isolation during the pandemic, which contributed to the widespread decrease in cases.
According to the Fortaleza Health Department, 400,000 properties should be inspected to combat mosquito outbreaks by February of next year, before the heaviest rainy season in the region. According to the Ministry of Health, chikungunya causes fever in the first two weeks, however, in more than half of cases, it also causes chronic pain in the joints, which can persist for years.
On the other hand, the other arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti decreased in 2022, compared to the pre-pandemic period. So far, dengue and zika cases have dropped by about 8% compared to 2019. But the states of Goiás and Rio Grande do Norte still concentrate the largest number of probable cases, respectively, of dengue and zika.