As of this morning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have issued a yellow fever outbreak notice for certain areas of Brazil.

Southern Brazil states like Rio Grande do Sul and Sao Paolo have seen nearly 50 cases of yellow fever with approximately 40 percent of those infected perishing to the disease.

Brazil does not require yellow fever vaccination to enter the country; however, the CDC highly recommends U.S. travelers to get vaccinated if you are going to an area of Brazil where there is a risk of yellow fever transmission.

Brazil recommends vaccination if you are traveling to the following areas:

All areas of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Distrito Federal (including the capital city of Brasília), Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins, and designated areas of the following states: Bahia, Paraná, Piauí, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo. Vaccination is also recommended for travelers visiting Iguassu Falls.

Vaccination is NOT recommended for travel to the following coastal cities: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Salvador, Recife, and Fortaleza.

In the United States, the vaccine is given only at designated yellow fever vaccination centers.

In addition to vaccination, other prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites when traveling in tropical areas. Mosquitoes that spread yellow fever usually bite during the day, especially at dusk and dawn.

When outside:
• Wear long-sleeved clothing and long pants. For extra protection, treat clothing with the insecticide permethrin.
• Use insect repellent on exposed skin. Repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide), Picaridin (KBR 3023), IR 3535, p-Menthane 3,8-diole (PMD or oil of lemon eucalyptus) are effective. Follow application instructions carefully.

When inside:
• Stay in well-screened areas as much as possible.
• Spray living and sleeping areas with insecticide.