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By NewsDesk  @infectiousdiseasenews

An outbreak of dengue fever has been ongoing in Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) since January 2019, with the upscale urban districts of Abidjan city being the most affected, according to the World Health Organization.

Côte d’Ivoire

Between 1 January and 25 June 2019, a total of 1,853 suspected dengue fever cases were reported, including two deaths (case fatality ratio 0.1 percent), with Abidjan accounting for 96 percent (1,776) of all reported suspected cases.

Of the total cases reported, 195 have been laboratory confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, of which 48 percent (93) isolated dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) and 26 (13 percent) were DENV-3. Cocody-Bingerville and Abobo East districts in Abidjan accounted for 59 percent (115) and 23 percent (44) of the total confirmed cases, respectively.

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Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. There are four closely related but antigenically different serotypes of the virus that can cause dengue (DEN1, DEN 2, DEN 3, DEN 4).

    • Dengue Fever (DF) – marked by an onset of sudden high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and pain in muscles and joints. Some may also have a rash and varying degree of bleeding from various parts of the body (including nose, mouth and gums or skin bruising).Dengue has a wide spectrum of infection outcome (asymptomatic to symptomatic). Symptomatic illness can vary from dengue fever (DF) to the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).
    • Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) – is a more severe form, seen only in a small proportion of those infected. DHF is a stereotypic illness characterized by 3 phases; febrile phase with high continuous fever usually lasting for less than 7 days; critical phase (plasma leaking) lasting 1-2 days usually apparent when fever comes down, leading to shock if not detected and treated early; convalescence phase lasting 2-5 days with improvement of appetite, bradycardia (slow heart rate), convalescent rash (white patches in red background), often accompanied by generalized itching (more intense in palms and soles), and diuresis (increase urine output).
    • Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) — Shock syndrome is a dangerous complication of dengue infection and is associated with high mortality. Severe dengue occurs as a result of secondary infection with a different virus serotype. Increased vascular permeability, together with myocardial dysfunction and dehydration, contribute to the development of shock, with resultant multiorgan failure.

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