The number of mosquito borne infectious agents spans a plethora of viruses (dengue , chikungunya, West Nile virus, Eastern Equine encephalitis virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus and parasites (malaria and filariasis). While these diseases are relatively rare in the United States as autochthonous, or “locally acquired” infections (although Martin County reported an outbreak of 22 locally acquired dengue cases last year), imported cases due to international travel is more common.
Florida is a state with major international airport hubs and a diverse population and is prone to imported infectious diseases. According to the Florida Department of Health’s (FLDOH) Arbovirus Surveillance for week 21 (May 18-24), the number of imported mosquito borne pathogens in 2014 are as follows:
There has been 23 imported dengue fever cases recorded in 2014 to date. The individuals had a travel history to a dengue endemic country in the two weeks prior to onset. Countries of origin were: Bolivia, Brazil (2), Cuba (8), Dominican Republic (4), Guadeloupe, Honduras, Puerto Rico (3), Trinidad, and Venezuela (2).
The Florida counties reporting cases were: Alachua, Broward (2), Clay, Hillsborough (3), Marion, Miami-Dade (10), Orange, Osceola (3) and Seminole. Four of the cases were reported in non-Florida residents. For more infectious disease news and information, visit and “like” the Infectious Disease News Facebook page.
For 16 of the dengue cases, typing was performed by PCR. All dengue serotypes were detected with DENV-1 and DENV-2 accounting for most.
Chikungunya virus, which made it’s presence known in the Western hemisphere with the first autochthonous cases in early December on the French side of St. Martin in the Caribbean, has been reported recently in the Sunshine State as imported cases linked to travel to the Caribbean.
The FLDOH has reported 10 imported chikungunya cases in 2014 according to the surveillance report. All individuals with a travel history to a chikungunya endemic country or area experiencing an outbreak in the two weeks prior to onset. The countries of origin were: Dominica, Dominican Republic, Haiti (6), and Martinique (2). Counties reporting cases were: Broward, Hillsborough (2), Miami-Dade (5), Palm Beach, and Pasco.
There has not yet been a confirmed human case of West Nile virus or Eastern Equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) although seven horses have tested positive EEEV. Sentinel chickens has tested positive for WNV, EEEV and SLEV.
In addition to the above mosquito borne viruses, there has been 13 imported malaria cases reported so far in 2014, with Plasmodium falciparum accounting for 70% of the malaria identified. Countries of origin were: Angola, Dominican Republic, Equatorial New Guinea (2), Ghana, Guatemala, Ivory Coast (2), Kenya, Sierra Leone (2), Sudan, and Uganda.
Counties reporting cases were: Broward (3), Duval, Hernando, Hillsborough (2), Miami-Dade, Okaloosa, Orange, Osceola, Pasco, and Santa Rosa. One of the cases was reported in non-Florida residents.