The people affected come from Central, Concepción, Itapúa, Paraguarí, Amambay, Caaguazú and San Pedro.
Up to epidemiological week (EW) 5, there are nine confirmed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the departments of Central (3), Concepción (3), Itapúa (2), Paraguarí (1), and no deaths from the disease, according to the National Vector Diseases Program.
Those affected by visceral leishmaniasis are found in equal proportions in the range of 1 to 4 years of life (3) of both sexes, and in ages 40 to 49 (3) male, with a predominance of 78% male (7 /9).
In 2022, a total of 69 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were recorded, registering an increase of 19% compared to 2021, which reported 58 cases. Of the total confirmed cases, 87% (60/69) are male, affecting mainly, in 32%, the age range of 20 to 39 years.
In relation to tegumentary leishmaniasis, in the course of 2023, four cases were confirmed, with a probable place of infection in the departments of Amambay (1), Caaguazú (1), San Pedro (1) and Concepción (1). No deaths as of (SE) 05/23.
100% of the cases correspond to the male sex and 50% of those affected are in the range of 40 to 49 years of age.
In 2022, 57 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis were identified, 8% more compared to 2021, which registered 53 cases.
They are a group of infectious, parasitic diseases, with pathological manifestations that differ in their clinical presentation and prognosis. They can affect animals and humans.
In humans, it can present clinically in two forms: integumentary and visceral, the latter being its most serious form which, if not treated in time, can cause death.
Forms of leishmaniasis:
– Integumentary: ulcerated lesions are generated on the skin and/or mucous membranes.
– Visceral: prolonged fever, listlessness, anemia, weight loss and enlargement of internal organs.
The dog is the main reservoir of visceral leishmaniasis in Paraguay. The signs present in the sick dog are: weight loss, skin lesions (scaling and skin ulcers, mainly on the muzzle, ears and extremities), conjunctivitis, fever, decay and exaggerated nail growth. The dog has no cure and is a source of transmission to people.
One of the most important measures to control the spread of the disease is through vector control in homes, eliminating organic waste (remains of fruits, vegetables, decomposing leaves, among others) accumulated in patios, to prevent the vector (phlebotomine or karachã) reproduces on wet sand.
It is essential to use insect repellents, clothing that covers the whole body, put screens on doors and windows and use mosquito nets in rest rooms.
Leishmaniasis are found in 19 countries in the Americas and in 98 worldwide. An average of 60,000 cases of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, and 4,000 of visceral leishmaniasis are diagnosed each year in the region, with a mortality rate of 7%.