Naegleria fowleri (commonly referred to as the “brain-eating amoeba”), is a microscopic amoeba which is a single-celled living organism. It can cause a rare and devastating infection of the brain called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

Pakistan media has reported two additional fatalities in Karachi due to the amoeba in the past week, bringing the total to six for the year to date.

Health authorities say the fifth case was a 14-year-old girl who was brought to the Liaquat National Hospital on July 7 with complaints of severe headache, vomiting, restlessness and fits. During investigation it was confirmed that the teenager was infected with Naegleria fowleri,” said Dr Zafar Mehdi, focal person for the Sindh Health Department’s Naegleria fowleri monitoring committee.

A report yesterday notes that a sixth victim, a 30-year-old man, a resident of Steel Town died in a private hospital of Karachi last night.


Naegleria fowleri is commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, ponds and canals.

Infections can happen when contaminated water enters the body through the nose. Once the amoeba enters the nose, it travelsto the brain where it causes PAM (which destroys brain tissue) and is usually fatal. Infections usually occur when it is hot for prolonged periods of time, which results in higher water temperatures and lower water levels.

Naegleria fowleri infections are rare. Most  infections occur from exposure to contaminated recreational water. Cases due to the use of neti pots and the practice of ablution have been documented.

The practice of ablution is included in Yogic, Ayurvedic, and Islamic traditions. Within the Islamic faith, ritual nasal rinsing is included in a cleansing process called “wudu” or “ablution.” It is usually performed several times a day in preparation for prayer, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

You cannot be infected with Naegleria fowleri by drinking contaminated water and the amoeba is not found in salt water.

Initial symptoms of PAM usually start within 1 to 7 days after infection. The initial symptoms may include headache, fever, nausea, or vomiting. Other symptoms can include stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, seizures, and hallucinations. After the start of symptoms, the disease progresses rapidly.

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