Odisha media reported Saturday that two people are dead and nine other are sickened due to anthrax in the Bisra block of Sundargarh district of Odisha in eastern India. The nine affected are currently being treated.

Indian subcontinent/CIA
Indian subcontinent/CIA

Deputy CMO of the Rourkela Government Hospital SK Kabisatpathy commented, “The hospital medicine specialist and skin specialist have clinically identified the disease as anthrax. Therefore, antibiotics have been given to the patients.”

He further stated, “The CDMO office located in Sundargarh has been told about the spread of anthrax, a notifiable disease, in Birikeri. A team of doctors today visited the area and collected blood samples for laboratory tests.

Anthrax is a bacterial pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Some of the more common herbivores are cattle, sheep,goats, horses, camels and deer. Anthrax is a very serious disease of livestock because it can potentially cause the rapid loss of a large number of animals in a very short time. Affected animals are often found dead with no illness detected.

It infects humans primarily through occupational or incidental exposure with infected animals of their skins.

When conditions become favorable, the spores germinate into colonies of bacteria. An example would be a grazing cow ingests spores that in the cow, germinate, grow spread and eventually kill the animal. Anthrax is caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. This spore forming bacteria can survive in the environment for years because of its ability to resist heat, cold, drying, etc.  This is usually the infectious stage of anthrax.

LISTEN: Anthrax in animals: An interview with Dr. Buddy Faries

The bacteria will form spores in the carcass and then return to the soil to infect other animals. The vegetative form is rarely implicated in transmission.  Strict enforcement of quarantines and proper burning and burying of carcasses from livestock suspected to have died from anthrax is important to prevent further soil contamination with the bacterial spores.

There are no reports of person-to-person transmission of anthrax. People get anthrax by handling contaminated animal or animal products, consuming undercooked meat of infected animals and more recently, intentional release of spores.

There are three types of human anthrax with differing degrees of seriousness: cutaneousgastrointestinal and inhalation.