In a follow-up on the Sudan Virus Disease (SVD) outbreak in central Uganda, while there has been a cumulative number of 18 confirmed and 18 probable SVD cases reported from Mubende, Kyegegwa and Kassanda districts, including 23 deaths, of which five were among confirmed cases (CFR among confirmed cases 28%), the country’s Minister of Health, Dr. Jane Ruth Aceng Ocero says concerning the capital city of Kampala–“As of today, there is no confirmed case of Ebola in Kampala. All samples tested for Ebola from Kampala turned negative”.
Kampala is located approximately 150 mile, or 94 km east of the epicenter of Mubende District. The city has a population of some 1.7 million people with the metro area having nearly seven million population.
The World Health Organization offers more information of SVD:
According to the International Classification of Disease for filoviruses (ICD-11) released in May 2019, Ebola disease is now sub-categorized depending on the causative virus. Outbreaks of Ebola disease caused by Sudan virus are named Sudan Virus Disease (SVD) outbreaks. Prior to May 2019 all viruses causing Ebola disease were grouped together. Based on the results of laboratory tests, this outbreak is caused by Sudan virus.
Sudan virus disease is a severe, often fatal illness affecting humans. Sudan virus was first reported in southern Sudan in June 1976, since then the virus has emerged periodically and up to now, seven outbreaks caused by SUDV have been reported, four in Uganda and three in Sudan. The estimated case fatality ratios of SVD have varied from 41% to 100% in past outbreaks.
The virus is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope or porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest. The virus then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with either blood or body fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from SVD or objects that have been contaminated with body fluids (like blood, feces, vomit) from a person sick with SVD or the body of a person who died from SVD.
The incubation period ranges from 2 to 21 days. People infected with Sudan virus cannot spread the disease until they develop symptoms, and they remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. Symptoms of SVD can be sudden and include fever, fatigue, muscle pain, headache, and sore throat later followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function. In some cases, the patient might present both internal and external bleeding (for example, bleeding from the gums, or blood in the stools).
The diagnosis of SVD can be difficult, as early nonspecific manifestation of the disease may mimic other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Confirmation is made using numerous diagnostic methods including RT-PCR. Supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms improve survival.
There are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of Sudan virus disease.
Uganda has reported four SVD outbreaks, in 2000, 2011 and 2012 (two outbreaks). Uganda also reported a Bundibugyo virus disease outbreak in 2007 and an Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2019.
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